Raga Sangeet: Understanding Hindustani Classical Vocal Music

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Once students get familiar with my teaching style there Best Voice Trainer. But I like to all musics. Classical music is heart of all musics. I shall try Music is a gift to one who understands it. I have been studying music for 10 years and I have a great understanding of rhythm and melody equally.

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My methods of teaching for anyone will start from the basics of music and it will further lead to the applications of those teachings on the instruments. A student should be Music is my passion. Music is a healing process that heals even the most miserable and broken souls. Music can mellow even a wicked heart. I try to instill this principle in the students so that they develop their aesthetic sense and enjoy the process of learning music.

I would love to teach students who share a similar passion in music and has I have been trained in Hindustani classical music from Suresh wadekar's academy and gathered the teaching experience from the same institute itself.

I specialize in vocal techniques, alankaars, raags and soft music. All age students are welcome I have even worked with schools as a Music teacher and currently i am free lancing as a Music I am a music teacher teaches vocal and instrumental. I have an experience of 15 yr all my students are fully satisfied and intemate with me. I am very interested in sharing my knowledge with my students.

I want all my students to be very expert in singing and instrumental music. My method is that I Because I am an A grade artiste of all India Radio, Mumbai. Have great experiences of performing on stage. Done more than 50 performances. A leading disciple of Padmabhushan Pt.

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Chhannulal Mishra, Varanasi. Surmani Upadhi prapt. A artiste of ICCR in eshtablished catagory. A registered teacher I am an experienced, qualified teacher and tutor with over 20 years of experience in teaching Hindustani classical Vocal music. I am performing artist too.

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Many of my students are known to perform Our specific hypotheses were the following 1 distinct emotional responses would be associated with alaap and gat of a raga ; 2 rhythmic regularity and tempo would both modulate emotional response. Three minute instrumental renditions of 12 ragas were played by a professional musician on sarod a stringed instrument and digitally recorded in both alaap and gat.

Understanding Hindustani Classical Vocal Music

Participants were permitted to provide emotion ratings only after listening to the composition for at least 1 min. This had two advantages: a it ruled out random responses, and b it gave each participant the flexibility to listen to the composition as per their choice between 1 and 3 min.

The list of the ragas played and scale used by the artist are given in Table 2. All the pieces in gat were provided similar rhythmic accompaniment on tabla in teen taal , a rhythm symmetrical in structure having sixteen beats in four equal divisions. One-minute sample in both alaap and gat are given as supplementary files see Supplementary audio clips S1, S2, S3, and S4.

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A short cartoon film was shown to the participants in an attempt to ensure that all the participants began the survey in a pleasant mood. The emotion labels in the response form were also presented in Hindi and transliterated to Hindi for example, Happy — , khush. The ragas were presented in alternating alaap and gat blocks. The experiment consisted of four such blocks with each block consisting of six ragas.

The presentation of alaap or gat as the first block was counterbalanced across subjects. The order of presentation of ragas within each block was randomized across participants. The participants were given an option to opt out of the survey after rating atleast two blocks i. The survey was presented in English. TABLE 2. The table lists the ragas used in the study and the scale used by the artist to play the raga. Participants were recruited through word of mouth and social media platforms.

Since the study was conducted online participants from across the world participated in the study. In view of the primary objectives of the study as described earlier, the analysis presented in this study focuses only on data from Indian participants who completed atleast half the survey [i. Participants also rated their familiarity with NICM on a scale of 0—4 0 not at all, 1 a little, 2 somewhat, 3 very, and 4 expert. Analysis was conducted at three levels 1 behavioral analysis of emotional response, 2 extraction of musical features of ragas and 3 correlation and regression analysis to investigate the relationship between musical features and emotional response.

Median ratings for each emotion were computed to assign an emotion label to a raga. The emotion with the highest median rating for a given raga was assigned as the typical emotion elicited by that raga. As per the objectives of this study, the effect of three musical structures namely tempo, rhythm and tonality on emotional response were assessed. Tempo was estimated in terms of number of notes presented per second and was measured in terms of note density.

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Rhythmic regularity was measured in terms of time units or beats and was calculated in terms of pulse clarity. Matlab-based toolbox MIR v.

To estimate the note density, the mireventdensity function was used which estimates the average frequency of events note onsets per second for an excerpt. Similarly, pulse clarity was estimated by using mirpulseclarity function in terms of the Shannon entropy of the fluctuation spectrum of a particular musical composition Pampalk et al. Music with easily perceived beats has a distinct and regular fluctuation spectrum and consequently has a low fluctuation entropy and high pulse clarity. The third musical structure, namely tonality, is a central organizing principle in many different kinds of music and pitches are heard in relation to a tonic pitch Chordia and Rae, It was calculated by estimating the mean frequency of occurrence of different tonic intervals as described by Bowling et al.

Tonic interval is the difference in cents between the fundamental frequencies of the note being compared with the tonic. An important point for consideration here was bin size. As pointed out in the introduction, apart from the 12 tones mentioned in Table 1 , there exist a set of 10 intermittent tones which comprise the 22 sruti system in Indian classical music Loy, Consequently, a smaller bin size would be considered more suitable to faithfully capture all the tonic intervals. However, recent work by Koduri et al. It is therefore sufficient to use the tone classification in Equal temperament scale for evaluating the tonality of ragas.

As seen from Table 1 , a bin size of cents would be sufficient.

Accordingly, to estimate tonality, the corresponding interval size data was collated in cent bins spanning three octaves labeled from to cents. The mean frequency of occurrence of tonic intervals was calculated for each bin. Three octaves were then folded into one by adding the mean frequency of occurrence of the notes in each of the corresponding bins across the three octaves. For instance, the mean frequency of occurrence of komal re would be the additive mean frequency of occurrence in , , and cent bins [refer to Supplementary Figure S1 Image1 ].

Understanding Hindustani Classical Vocal Music

To assess whether there were statistically significant differences in rhythmic regularity pulse clarity and tempo note density among the ragas with different experienced emotions one-way ANOVAs were conducted. The values of pulse clarity and note density for both alaap and gat of ragas were taken as dependent variables and the emotions experienced were taken as the independent variable.

To study the effect of tonality on emotional response, correlation analysis was conducted.

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Correlations were calculated between the average rating of an emotion and the mean frequency of occurrence of tonic intervals across the 12 ragas played in gat. To characterize which of these tonic intervals were the best predictors of the emotional response stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted.

In the regression analysis, the vector containing average ratings for an emotion across the 12 ragas was taken as the dependent variable and the mean frequency of occurrence of the 12 tonic intervals was taken as the independent variable. In order to assign an emotion label to a raga median ratings for each emotion were computed.